Our vision is made up of a number of essential elements that must come together precisely to provide sharp vision in all directions of gaze. If one of these elements is not functioning or weak in performance, then a part of the visual system breaks down causing symptoms of blurred vision, double vision, eye strain, fatigue, headache or inaccurate eye tracking skills.


Convergence and Divergence

  • This is the ability of both eyes to team together to point accurately at the same point in space.
  • Success in this skill ensures accurate eye positioning to see targets clearly and singularly.
  • Deficiencies in accurate eye teaming can lead to occassionally seeing double vision, frequent loss of place when reading, headaches with concentrated tasks, and a loss of attention.


  • This is the ability of the eyes to shift in focus. 
  • Success in this skill ensures rapid and accurate changes in focus from distant to near objects and vice versa.
  • Deficiencies in accommodation can result in slow focussing from the desk to the board and vice versa.


  • This is the ability of both eyes to move fixation accurately from one target to another.
  • Success in this skill is useful for moving the eyes effortlessly along the lines of text in a book, and accurately returning the eyes back to the begnning of the next line of text in a book. 
  • Deficiencies in fast and accurate eye muscle control can result in children losing their place when reading, skipping lines of print or missing words on a line and have difficulty copying from the board.

Ocular pursuits

  • This is the ability of both eyes to accurately follow and track an object or moving target.
  • Success in this skill is useful typically in fast moving sports.
  • Deficiencies in the ability to follow an object smoothly and accurately can result in excessive head movements when reading and difficulties with sports.